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These results demonstrate concomitant, but distinct roles in migration for each integrin.Notably, transcriptional control of migration termination provides a new mechanism for regulation of morphogenesis and organ size.In L2, they migrate away from the center along the ventral surface, then turn to the dorsal side during L3.A second turn redirects migration along the dorsal surface toward the center of the nematode during L4.2D–F), and was maintained in the DTC throughout adulthood (Fig. Similar DTC expression of GFP was observed in two other independently derived 6-kb strain used in subsequent experiments refers to JE2121 containing 6 kb of upstream sequence.

The Rac GTPases CED-10 and MIG-2 have been shown to act downstream from INA-1 during migration of commissural neurons in expression as a critical stop signal for controlling DTC migration and gonadogenesis.

To further define integrin function during organogenesis and the specific roles of -dependent mechanism, and this effect is necessary for cessation of migration. Ventral migration and DTC turning followed the normal path at the normal rate, but migration was perpetual as it continued throughout the reproductive life span of the nematode.

These results define the functions and regulation of both integrin heterodimers during DTC migration and establish a new morphogenetic mechanism for controlling organ size and shape. This is in stark contrast to wild-type DTCs, which stop migrating prior to reproduction (Fig. Mapping experiments localized gene (variable abnormal morphology) encodes a transcription factor homologous to mammalian Pax6 and is defined by the presence of DNA-binding paired and homeodomains (Cinar and Chisholm 2004).

The PAT-2∷GFP expression pattern was the same as the transcriptional fusions, including the up-regulation of expression in the DTC during L3 (data not shown). The 420 bp of upstream sequence were sufficient to promote DTC expression of GFP (77%, on wild-type N2 nematodes produced many Pat embryos.

Some nematodes that were less severely affected by RNAi survived until adulthood with variable defects, including abnormal body size and shape and uncoordinated movement. 3C), and 21% had overextension of the DTCs past the vulva ( is expressed in migrating neurons, the pharynx, and the DTCs, but not in body-wall muscles (Baum and Garriga 1997).

The unique, highly penetrant perpetual migration phenotype we have discussed shows that specific stop signs are needed to regulate DTCs at the end of migration.